Manganese has typically been used in steel production but is a key ingredient in lithium ion battery cathode materials. Here, Dr Richard Flook explores the manganese market.

Manganese received its name from the Latin word "magnes" meaning "magnet", or "magnesia nigri" meaning "black magnesia" which referred to pyrolusite (MnO2). With common oxidation states ranging from +7 to +2, manganese is a versatile element with fascinating chemistry.

Although mostly used and essential in steel production, manganese has become an important element in both alkaline and more recently in lithium ion batteries (LIBs). The majority of processed manganese products needed . . .

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